Leap Auctions, LLC of Texas specializes in the sale and disposition of livestock, heavy equipment, antiques, collectibles, jewelry, gold, coins, vehicles and surplus assets, as well as offer full estate sales and total business liquidations. We take care of our buyers and sellers alike and know that in the cattle auction environment there are often Abbreviations, Slang and Market Terminology that not everyone is familiar with. That is why we at Leap Auctions, LLC have comprised a glossary to help our customers.
Dairy Cow & Beef Cattle Auction Definitions, Terminology & Slang
Artificial insemination (A.I.): A technique to impregnate a female without the natural aid of the male of the species.
Birth Weight (BW): The calf’s weight at birth.
Bovine Quantitative Trait (QTL): A tool to estimate traits like mild production, growth, and tenderness of the meat.
Branding: A permanent mark, utilized to identify animals. Fire branding and freeze branding are the most common methods.
Bull: Male cattle of any age.
Calf: Either male or female cattle offspring under the age of 1 year.
Calving Ease (CE): The ease of giving birth to a calf.
Carcass Weight (CW): Expressed in pounds.
Cow: Female cow over the age of 3 years.
Closed Herd: A group of cattle raised without the influence of outside cattle.
Crossbred: 2 different breeds of cattle’s offspring.
Dam: Mother of any offspring.
Dehorning: The application of removing a cattle’s horns.
Downer Cow: A cow that cannot stand for any reason.
Embryo Transfer: The act of removing embryos from a high quality donor cow and placing them in a less desirable host cow.
Expressed Sequence Tags (EST): Used for locating and mapping genes, a short strand of DNA that is connected to the DNA molecule that acts as an identifier of a gene.
F1: 1st generation of offspring resulting in the mating of a purebred bull and a cow of another breed
Fat: Fat thickness of the 12th rib.
Fat Cattle: Cattle, both male and female, that is ready for slaughter.
Freemartin: Heifer calf born with a bull calf; usually sterile and occur 9 of 10 twin births.
Heifer: Female cow under the age of 3 years.
Marbling (MB): The flecks of fat that is found within the lean muscle tissue; enhancing the flavor and juiciness.
Milk: The pre-weaning performance of the calf.
National Cattle Evaluation (NCE): Where nearly all purebred beef cattle organization perform a genetic evaluation of carcass, growth, and maternal traits.
Open Cow: An female cow that is not pregnant.
Pedigree: The record lineage of the parents of a given individual.
Polled: Cattle naturally void of horns.
Progeny: All offspring.
Purebred: A recognized breed of any animal eligible for registration.
Registered: A purebred animal that is recognized and logged by breed association.
Rib Eye Area (REA): Measured in squared inches.
Sire: Male parent.
Springer: Female cattle near calving.
Stag: A castrated male after secondary sex characteristics are developed.
Steer: A castrated calf before secondary sex characteristics are developed.
Wean: When the offspring are taken from their mothers to become no longer dependent on milk for sustenance.
Weaning Weight (WW): Expressed in pounds, the adjusted weaning weight.
Yearling: Animal between the ages of 1 year and 2 years.
Yearling Weight (YW): Expressed in pounds, the adjusted weight at 1 year of age
Other Common Cattle Abbreviations
CED – Daughters Calving Ease
CWT – 100 pounds of weight
FM – Feedlot Merit: Extra dollars based on pounds gained from WW to YW.
FT– Fat Thickness: The lower the FT the leaner the beef is.
GL – Gestation Length
GM – Grid Merit: Extra carcass value in dollars.
MB – Marbling: a determinant of the USDA quality grade.
MK – Milk: Important if you retain replacements.
SC – Scrotal Circumference
ST – Stay-ability: The ability of the cow to produce a calf past the age of 6.
TM – Total Maternal